第一篇:《Unit 9》

Unit 9

Sentence Understanding

S1: A special glamor is attached to everything (connected with it)—its arias, singers and roles, [not to mention its opening nights].


S2: what characters in fact or fiction can claim, generation after generation, so constant a public?


S3: It combines the resources of vocal and instrumental music—soloists, ensembles, chorus, orchestra and ballet with poetry and drama, acting and pantomime, scenery and costumes.


S4: To combine the diverse elements into a unity is a problem (that has exercises some of the best minds in the history of music).


S5: At first glance opera would seem to make impossible demands on the credulity of the spectators.


S6: It presents us with human beings (caught up in dramatic situations) (who sing to each other instead of speaking.)

它向我们呈现的是处在戏剧场景中的人物, 这些人物不是用对话而是用歌声来交流。

S7: The reasonable question is (and it was asked most pointedly throughout the history of opera by literary men): how can an art form based on so unnatural a procedure be convincing?


S8: The question ignores what must always remain the fundamental aspiration of art: not to copy nature but to heighten our awareness of it.


S9: People in real life do not sing to each other. Neither do they converse in blank verse, [as Shakespeare’s characters do]; nor live in rooms (of

which one wall is conveniently missing[ so that the audience may look in]) .


S10: The conventions of opera are more evident than those of poetry, painting, drama, or film, but they are not different in kind.


S11: It uses the human voice to impinge upon the spectators the basic emotions—love, hate, jealousy, joy, grief—[with an elemental force possible only to itself].

它(歌剧)利用人的歌声, 以其特有的自然力,来冲击观众的基本情感——爱、恨、嫉妒、快乐、悲伤。

S12: The logic of reality gives way [on the operatic stage] to the transcendent logic of art, and to the power of music over the life of the heart.


Unit 10

XII. Sentence Analysis

1. No other writer has been read so widely in so many countries.


2. He could create characters (that have meaning (beyond the time and places of his plays)).


或 他塑造的人物超越了剧中的时空意义。

3. They struggle [just as people do in real life], [sometimes successfully and sometimes with painful and tragic results].



4. Shakespeare wrote at least thirty-seven plays, (which showed his knowledge on various subjects).


5. [Although principally remembered today as the premier English dramatist], he early attained widespread popularity [in the 1590’s] [as a lyric and narrative poet] [with the publication of Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece].

尽管现在,人们主要将莎士比亚记为最重要的英语剧作家,但《维纳斯与阿童尼斯》 和《鲁克丽斯受辱记》两部诗作的发表使他早在16世纪90年代享就成为了享有盛誉的抒情诗人和叙事诗人。

6. (Over the next two decades) he wrote a succession of widely acclaimed plays (which may be categorized roughly into three groups: histories, comedies, and tragedies or tragicomedies).


7. But undoubtedly Shakespeare’s worldwide reputation as a dramatist rests on the profound exploration of the human condition (portrayed in his great tragedies Romeo and Juliet, Othello, Hamlet, etc).


8. [After having dominated the London theatrical scene for some twenty years], Shakespeare retired to his hometown, (where he lived in relative ease and comfort until his death in 1616).



第三篇:《2013七年级英语下册 Module 9 unit 2》



Part one: English Literature

Chapter1 The Renaissance period(14世纪至十七世纪中叶)文艺复兴

1. Humanism is the essence of the Renaissance.人文主义是文艺复兴的核心。

2. the Greek and Roman civilization was based on such a conception that man is the measure of all things.人文主义作为文艺复兴的起源是因为古希腊罗马文明的基础是以“人”为中心,人是万物之灵。

3. Renaissance humanists found in then classics a justification to exalt human nature and came to see that human beings were glorious creatures capable of individual development in the direction of perfection, and that the world they inhabited was theirs not to despise but to question, explore, and enjoy.人文主义者们却从古代文化遗产中找到充足的论据,来赞美人性,并开始注意到人类是崇高的生命,人可以不断发展完善自己,而且世界是属于他们的,供他们怀疑,探索以及享受。

4. Thomas More, Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare are the best

representatives of the English humanists.托马斯.摩尔,克利斯朵夫.马洛和威廉.莎士比亚是英国人文主义的代表。

5. Wyatt introduced the Petrarchan sonnet into England.怀亚特将彼特拉克的十四行诗引进英国。

6. The first period of the English Renaissance was one of imitation and assimilation.英国文艺复兴初期只是一个学习模仿与同化的阶段。

7. The goals of humanistic poetry are: skillful handling of conventions, force of language, and, above all, the development of a rhetorical plan in which meter, rhyme, scheme, imagery and argument should all be combined to frame the emotional theme and throw it into high relief.人文主义诗歌的主要目标是对传统习俗的熟练运用,语言的力度与气概,而最重要的是发展了修辞模式,即将格律,韵脚(式),组织结构,意象(比喻,描述)与议论都结合起来勾画出情感主题,并将其极为鲜明生动的表现出来。

8. The most famous dramatists in the Renaissance England are Christopher Marlowe, William Shakespeare, and Ben Jonson.文艺复兴时期英国最著名的戏剧家有克利斯朵夫.马洛,威廉.莎士比亚与本.约翰逊。

9. Francis Bacon (1561-1626), the first important English essayist.费兰西斯.培根是英国历史上最重要的散文家。

(I)Edmund Spenser埃德蒙.斯宾塞

10. the theme of Redcrosse is not “Arms and the man,” but something more

romantic-“Fierce wars and faithful loves.”《仙后》的主题并非“男人与武器”,而是更富浪漫色彩的“残酷战争与忠贞爱情”。

11. It is Spenser‟s idealism, his love of beauty, and his exquisite melody that make him known as “the poets‟ poet.”正是斯宾塞的理想主义,对美的热爱以及精美


(II)Christopher Marlowe克利斯朵夫.马洛

12. As the most gifted of the “University Wits,” Marlowe composed six plays within his short lifetime. Among them the most important are: Tamburlaine, Parts I & II, Dr.Faustus, The Jew of Malta and Edward II.马洛是当时“大学才子”中最富才华的人,在他短暂的一生中,他完成了六部剧本的创作。其中最负盛名的是:《帖木尔》,《浮士德博士的悲剧》,《马耳他岛的犹太人》以及《爱德华二世》。

13. Marlowe‟s greatest achievement lies in that he perfected the blank verse and made it the principal medium of English drama.马洛的艺术成就在于他完善了无韵体诗,并使之成为英国戏剧中最重要的文体形式。

14. Marlowe‟s second achievement is his creation of the Renaissance hero for English drama.马洛的第二项贡献是他创造了文艺复兴时期的英雄形象。

15. His brilliant achievement as a whole raised him to an eminence as the pioneer of English drama.他对戏剧发展的贡献是不可磨灭的,为此,它被后世尊为英国戏剧的先驱。

16. The passionate shepherd to his love激情的牧人致心爱的姑娘

This short poem is considered to be one of the most beautiful lyrics in English literature.这首短诗是英国文学诗中最优美的抒情诗。

(III)William Shakespeare威廉.莎士比亚

17. The first period of his dramatic career, he wrote five history plays: Henry VI, Parts I, II, and III, Richard III, and Titus Andronicus; and four comedies: The Comedy of Errors, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Taming of the Shrew, and Love‟s Labour‟s Lost.在他戏剧创作生涯的第一个阶段,他创作了五部历史剧:《亨利六世》,《理查三世》,《泰托斯.安东尼》以及四部喜剧:《错误的戏剧》,《维洛那二绅士》,《驯悍记》和《爱的徒劳》。

18. In the second period, he wrote five histories: Richard II, King John, Henry IV, Parts I and II, and Henry V; six comedies: A Midsummer Night‟s Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It, Twelfth Night, and The Merry Wives of Windsor; and two tragedies: Romeo and Juliet and Julius Caesar.在第二阶段,他写了五部历史剧:《理查三世》,《约翰王》,《亨利四世》,《亨利五世》以及六部喜剧《仲夏夜之梦》,《威尼斯商人》,《无事生非》,《皆大欢喜》,《第十二夜》,《温莎的风流娘儿们》,还有两部悲剧:《罗密欧与朱丽叶》和《裘利斯.凯撒》。

19. Shakespeare‟s third period includes his greatest tragedies and his so-called dark comedies. The tragedies of this period are Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra, Troilus and Cressida, and Coriolanus. The two comedies are All‟s Well That Ends and Measure for Measure.第三阶段诞生了莎翁最伟大的悲剧和他自称的黑色喜剧(或悲喜剧),悲剧有:《哈姆雷特》,《奥赛罗》,


20. The last period of Shakespeare‟s work includes his principle romantic【奥赛罗9人英语剧本】

tragicomedies: Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter‟s Tale and The Tempest; and his two plays: Henry VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen.最后一个时期的作品主要有浪漫悲喜剧:《伯里克利》《辛白林》《冬天的故事》与《暴风雨》。他最后两部剧是《亨利八世》与《鲁克里斯受辱记》。

21. Shakespeare‟s sonnets are the only direct expression of the poet‟s own feelings.这些十四行诗都是莎翁直抒胸臆的成果。

22. Shakespeare‟s history plays are mainly written under the principle that national unity under a mighty and just sovereign is a necessity.莎翁的历史剧都有这样一个主题:在一个强大英明的君主统领下的国家,统一是非常必要的。

23. In his romantic comedies, Shakespeare takes an optimistic attitude toward love and youth, and the romantic elements are brought into full play.在他的浪漫喜剧中,莎士比亚以乐观的态度对待爱情与青春,并将浪漫色彩渲染到极致。

24. The successful romantic tragedy is Romeo and Juliet, which eulogizes the

faithfulness of love and the spirit of pursuing happiness.莎翁在其成功的浪漫主义悲剧《罗密欧与朱丽叶》,颂扬了对爱的忠贞及对幸福的追求。

25. Shakespeare‟s greatest tragedies are: Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth. They have some characteristics in common. Each portrays some noble hero.莎士比亚的四大悲剧是:《哈姆雷特》《奥赛罗》《李尔王》《麦克白》

26. “The King‟s government must be carried on”—but carried on for the good of the nation, not for the pleasure of the king.“国王的统治一定要万古不变”----但是这种流传百世万古不变的统治是有利于国家利益的,而不是只为国王自己服务。

27. Thus, he finds no way to solve the social problems. In the end, the only thing he can do as a humanist is to escape from the reality to seek comfort in his dream.正因如此,他才无力寻求到医治各种社会痼疾的灵丹妙药,最后,他作为人文主义所能做的唯一事情便是逃避现实,从梦幻中找安慰。

28. He holds that literature should be a combination of beauty, kindness and truth, and should reflect nature and reality.他认为文学应该是真善美的结合,应该反映天性与现实。

29. Shakespeare is above all writers in the past and in the present time.古往今来,没有一个作家能与莎士比亚媲美,他对后世文学家的潜移默化也是无可估量的。

30. Almost all English writers after him have been influenced by him either in artistic point of view, in literary form or in language.在他之后几乎所有的英国文学家都在艺术观点,文学形式及语言技巧方面受到他的影响。

31. Sonnet 18 is one of the most beautiful sonnets written by Shakespeare.十四行诗


(IV)Francis Bacon弗兰西斯.培根

32. The most import works of his first group include The Advancement of Learning, Written in English; Novum Organum , an enlarged Latin version of The

Advancement of Learning.培根的作品可分为三类:第一类中最重要的作品有《学术的进展》(用英文著述)《新工具》(是《学术的进展》的拉丁文增补版)

33. One is the knowledge obtained from the Divine Revelation, the other is the knowledge from the workings of human mind.他将知识分为两种:一种是通过神的启示获得的知识,另一种是通过人类用脑思考而获得的知识。

34. According to Bacon, man‟s understanding consists of three parts: history to man‟s memory, poetry to man‟s imagination and creation, and philosophy to man‟s reason.培根认为,人类的认识与学问分为三部分:基于人类回忆的历史学,基于人类想象力创造力的诗歌与基于人类理性的哲学。

35. Bacon, as a humanist intellect, shows the new empirical attitudes toward truth about nature and bravely challenges the medieval scholasticist.作为人文主义者的培根展示了自己对于自然界真理的实验主义态度,并向中世纪的经院哲学家们提出挑战。

36. Bacon‟s essays are famous for their brevity, compactness and powerfulness.培根的散文以简洁,紧凑,有力度而著名。

37. The essays are well-arranged and enriched by biblical allusions, metaphors and cadence.这些散文不仅结构巧妙还大量使用了《圣经》的典故,隐喻和基调。

38. Of Studies 论学习

Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man.读书使人充实,讨论使人机智。

(V)John Donne约翰.邓恩

39. The imagery is drawn from the actual life.诗中的意象都是从现实生活中提取的。

40. His poems give a more inherently theatrical impression by exhibiting a seemingly unfocused diversity of experiences and attitudes, and a free range of feelings and moods.他的诗歌给人一种固有的戏剧性,展示了看上去零散多样的经历与观念,以及漫无边际的情感与心境。

41. The Sons and Sonnets, by which Donne is probably best known, contains most of his early lyrics.《歌与短歌》是邓恩最有名的诗集,囊括了他早期大多数爱情诗作。

42. In his gloomy poem “Farewell to love,” we can see his disillusionment.在忧伤的诗作《告别爱情》中,我们就可以感受到他对爱情幻想的破灭。

43. With the brief, simple language, the argument is continuous throughout the poem.议论依附于一种简洁平白的语言,并贯穿于整首诗作。

(VI)John Milton约翰.弥尔顿

44. he was entirely occupied with the thoughts of fighting for human freedom.他头脑中充满了为人类自由而战的思想。

45. Milton‟s literary achievements can be divided into three groups: the early poetic works, the middle prose pamphlets and the great poem.弥尔顿的文学作品可分为三类:早期诗作,中期的散文小册子和后期的伟大诗作。

46. Milton wrote his three major poetical works: Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained, and Samson Agonistes.他的三部伟大诗作:《失乐园》《复乐园》和《力士参孙》。

47. The theme of Paradise Lost is the “Fall of Man”. In the fall of man Adam

discovered his full humanity.失乐园的主题是人类的沉沦。在沉沦之中,亚当发现了自己身上的人性。

48. Milton held that God created all things out of Himself, including evil.他认为上帝是按照他自己的样子造出的世界,其中也包括罪恶。

49. It opens the way for the voluntary sacrifice of Christ which showed the mercy of God in bringing good out of evil.为基督自愿献身开辟了道路,这也显示出上帝欲将人类从罪恶与苦难中拯救出来的同情心。

50. In Samson Agonistes, the whole poem strongly suggests Milton‟s passionate longing that he too could bring destruction down upon the enemy at the cost of his own life.在力士参孙中,整首诗都强烈暗示着弥尔顿渴望他自己也能像参孙一样,以生命为代价,与敌人同归于尽。

51. In his life, Milton shows himself a real revolutionary, a master poet and a great prose writer.弥尔顿毕生都展现了真正的革命精神和非凡的诗歌才华。

52. Paradise Lost:人类由于理性不强,意志薄弱,经不起考验,暗示英国自产主义革命失败的原因。

Chapter2 The Neoclassical Period(1660-1798)新古典主义

1. In short, it was an age full of conflicts and divergence of values.总之,这一时期是矛盾与价值观分歧的时期。

2. The eighteenth-century England is also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason.英国的十八世纪也同时是启蒙主义时代,或曰理性时代。

3. Its purpose was to enlighten the whole world with the light of modern

philosophical and artistic ideas.运动的主旨便是用当代哲学与艺术思想的晨光启迪整个世界。

4. Enlighteners held that rationality or reason should be the only, the final cause of any human thought and activities. They called for a reference to order, reason and rules.启蒙者主张理性是任何人思想与行动的唯一缘由。他们大力提倡秩序,理性及法律。

5. As a matter of fact, literature at the time, heavily didactic and moralizing, became

第五篇:《Module 9 Unit 2》

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