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Section I Use of English


Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Though not biologically related, friends are as “related” as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is _(1)_a study, published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has__(2)_.

The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted _(3)__1,932 unique subjects which __(4)__pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both_(5)_.

While 1% may seem_(6)_,it is not so to a geneticist. As James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego, says, “Most people do not even _(7)_their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who_(8)_our kin.”

The study_(9)_found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity .Why this similarity exists in smell genes is difficult to explain, for now,_(10)_,as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more_(11)_it. There could be many mechanisms working together that _(12)_us in choosing genetically similar friends_(13)_”functional Kinship” of being friends with_(14)_! One of the remarkable findings of the study was the similar genes seem to be evolution_(15)_than other genes Studying this could help_(16)_why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major_(17)_factor.

The findings do not simply explain people’s_(18)_to befriend those of similar_(19)_backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to_(20)_that all subjects, friends and strangers, were taken from the same population.

1. [A] when [B] why [C] how [D] what

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2. [A] defended [B] concluded [C] withdrawn [D] advised

3. [A] for [B] with [C] on [D] by

4. [A] compared [B] sought [C] separated [D] connected

5. [A] tests [B] objects [C]samples [D] examples

6. [A] insignificant [B] unexpected [C]unbelievable [D] incredible

7. [A] visit [B] miss [C] seek [D] know

8. [A] resemble [B] influence [C] favor [D] surpass

9. [A] again [B] also [C] instead [D] thus

10. [A] Meanwhile [B] Furthermore [C] Likewise [D] Perhaps

11. [A] about [B] to [C]from [D]like

12. [A] drive [B] observe [C] confuse [D]limit

13. [A] according to [B] rather than [C] regardless of [D] along with

14. [A] chances [B]responses [C]missions [D]benefits

15. [A] later [B]slower [C] faster [D] earlier

16. [A]forecast [B]remember [C]understand [D]express

17. [A] unpredictable [B]contributory [C] controllable [D]


18. [A] endeavor [B]decision [C]arrangement [D] tendency

19. [A] political [B] religious [C] ethnic [D] economic

20. [A] see [B] show [C] prove [D] tell

Section II Reading Comprehension

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A


Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points) Text 1

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King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted “kings don’t abdicate, they dare in their sleep.” But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyle?

The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. When public opinion is particularly polarised, as it was following the end of the Franco regime, monarchs can rise above “mere” politics and “embody” a spirit of national unity.

It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs’ continuing popularity polarized. And also, the Middle East excepted, Europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra). But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a

non-controversial but respected public figure.

Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today – embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.

The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.

While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.

It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy’s reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty

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hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that

monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service – as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies.

21. According to the first two Paragraphs, King Juan Carlos of Spain

[A] used turn enjoy high public support

[B] was unpopular among European royals

[C] cased his relationship with his rivals

[D]ended his reign in embarrassment


22. Monarchs are kept as heads of state in Europe mostly

[A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

[B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality

[C] to give voter more public figures to look up to

[D]due to their everlasting political embodiment

23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?

[A] Aristocrats’ excessive reliance on inherited wealth

[B] The role of the nobility in modern democracies

[C] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families

[D]The nobility’s adherence to their privileges

24. The British royals “have most to fear” because Charles

[A] takes a rough line on political issues

[B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised

[C] takes republicans as his potential allies

[D] fails to adapt himself to his future role

25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

[A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

[B] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

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[C] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

[D]Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats


Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Cpurt will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.

California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.

The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justice can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.

They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smartphone- a vast storehouse of digital information is similar to say, going through a suspect’s purse .The court has ruled that police don't violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or porcketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one’s smartphone is more like entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee’s reading history ,financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of “cloud computing.” meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier.

But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the

Constitution’s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now.


2013年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语一真题及答案 Section I Use of English

Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

People are, on the whole, poor at considering background information when making

individual decisions. At first glance this might seem like a strength that 1 the ability to make judgments which are unbiased by 2 factors. But Dr. Uri Simonsohn speculated that an

inability to consider the big 3 was leading decision-makers to be biased by the daily samples of information they were working with. 4 , he theorised that a judge 5 of appearing too soft 6 crime might be more likely to send someone to prison 7 he had already sentenced five or six other defendants only to forced community service on that day.

To 8 this idea, he turned to the university-admissions process. In theory, the 9 of an applicant should not depend on the few others 10 randomly for interview during the same day, but Dr. Simonsohn suspected the truth was 11 .

He studied the results of 9,323 MBA interviews 12 by 31 admissions officers. The interviewers had 13 applicants on a scale of one to five. This scale 14 numerous factors into consideration. The scores were 15 used in conjunction with an applicant‘s score on the Graduate

Management Admission Test, or GMAT, a standardized exam which is 16 out of 800 points, to make a decision on whether to accept him or her.

Dr. Simonsohn found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one 17 that, then the score for the next applicant would 18 by an average of 0.075 points. This might sound small, but to 19 the effects of such a decrease a candidate could need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been 20 .

1. [A]grants [B]submits [C]transmits [D]delivers

2. [A]minor [B]objective [C]crucial [D] external

3. [A]issue [B]vision [C]picture [D]external

4. [A] For example [B] On average [C]In principle [D]Above all

5. [A]fond [B]fearful [C]capable [D] thoughtless

6. [A] in [B] on [C]to [D] for

7. [A] if [B] until [C] though [D] unless

8. [A] promote [B] emphasize [C]share [D]test

9. [A] decision [B] quality [C] status [D] success

10. [A] chosen [B] studied [C] found [D] identified

11. [A] exceptional [B] defensible [C] replaceable [D] otherwise

12. [A] inspired [B] expressed [C] conducted [D] secured

13. [A] assigned [B] rated [C] matched [D] arranged

14. [A] put [B] got [C] gave [D] took

15. [A] instead [B] then [C] ever [D] rather

16. [A] selected [B] passed [C] marked [D] introduced

17. [A] before [B] after [C] above [D] below

18. [A] jump [B] float [C] drop [D] fluctuate

19. [A] achieve [B] undo [C] maintain [D] disregard

20. [A] promising [B] possible [C] necessary [D] helpful

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A


Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

In the 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada, Miranda Priestly, played by Meryl Streep, scolds her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn‘t affect her, Priestly explains how the deep blue color of the assistant‘s sweater descended over the years from fashion shows to departments stores and to the bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment.

This top-down conception of the fashion business couldn‘t be more out of date or at odds with the feverish would be described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline‘s three-year indictment of ―fast fashion‖. In the last decade or so, advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as Zara, H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely. Quicker turnarounds mean less wasted inventory, more frequent release, and more profit. These labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposable-meant to last only a wash or two, although they don‘t advertise that –and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks. By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace.

The victims of this revolution, of course, are not limited to designers. For H&M to offer a $5.95 knit miniskirt in all its 2,300-pius stores around the world, it must rely on low-wage overseas labor, order in volumes that strain natural resources, and use massive amounts of harmful chemicals.

Overdressed is the fashion world‘s answer to consumer-activist bestsellers like Michael

Pollan‘s The Omnivore‘s Dilemma. ―Mass-produced clothing, like fast food, fills a hunger and need, yet is non-durable and wasteful,‖ Cline argues. Americans, she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year – about 64 items per person – and no matter how much they give away, this excess leads to waste.

Towards the end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a Brooklyn woman named Sarah Kate Beaumont, who since 2008 has made all of her own clothes – and beautifully. But as Cline is the first to note, it took Beaumont decades to perfect her craft; her example can‘t be knocked off.

Though several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment – including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection line –Cline believes

lasting change can only be effected by the customer. She exhibits the idealism common to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy. Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can‘t afford not to.

21. Priestly criticizes her assistant for her

[A] poor bargaining skill.

[B] insensitivity to fashion.

[C] obsession with high fashion.

[D] lack of imagination.

22. According to Cline, mass-market labels urge consumers to

[A] combat unnecessary waste.

[B] shut out the feverish fashion world.

[C] resist the influence of advertisements.

[D] shop for their garments more frequently.

23. The word ―indictment‖ (Line 3, Para.2) is closest in meaning to

[A] accusation.

[B] enthusiasm.

[C] indifference.

[D] tolerance.

24. Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph?

[A] Vanity has more often been found in idealists.www.fz173.com_考研英语模拟题及答案。

[B] The fast-fashion industry ignores sustainability.

[C] People are more interested in unaffordable garments.

[D] Pricing is vital to environment-friendly purchasing.

25. What is the subject of the text?

[A] Satire on an extravagant lifestyle.

[B] Challenge to a high-fashion myth.

[C] Criticism of the fast-fashion industry.

[D] Exposure of a mass-market secret.

Text 2

An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted-the trouble is, no one knows which half. In the internet age, at least in theory, this fraction can be much reduced. By watching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim

―behavioural‖ ads at those most likely to buy.

In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such

fine-grained information: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioural ads? Or should they have explicit permission?

In December 2010 America's Federal Trade Commission (FTC) proposed adding a "do not track "(DNT) option to internet browsers ,so that users could tell advertisers that they did not

want to be followed .Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Apple's Safari both offer DNT ;Google's Chrome is due to do so this year. In February the FTC and Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry would get cracking on responding to DNT requests.

On May 31st Microsoft Set off the row: It said that Internet Explorer 10, the version due to appear windows 8, would have DNT as a default.

It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Getting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do so. Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioural ads or whether they are sticking with Microsoft‘s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway.

Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. After all, it has an ad business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still working out how. If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on default

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